English literacy and civics education has in one form or another been a part of the U.S. landscape for more than a hundred years. Although today’s federal initiative promoting integrated civics and English literacy instruction (EL/Civics) is relatively new (since 1999), the practice of combining English instruction with civics education is not. From the settlement houses in the early 1900s to today’s adult education programs, many millions of new immigrants have participated in classes that teach English, civic responsibility, and preparation for the U.S. citizenship test—often sequentially, at times combined. The desire for citizenship, economic security, and social acceptance has been and continues to be a strong incentive for immigrants wanting to learn English. How best to facilitate accomplishment of the individual immigrant goals of security and improved quality of life, and the societal goals of integration and stability, as well as determining what role bilingualism and biliteracy might play in the process are topics of ongoing debate.