This volume has examined, in a number of Asian countries, language policy responses to the competing demands of globalization and the need to create or preserve national cultural identities. Individual chapters have focused on different aspects of this complex issue: the role of language policies in the social (re)construction of national cultural identities; the relationship between such policies and political agendas that are linked to important social conflicts; the tension within state institutions (especially education) between the need to compete in a multinational and multicultural global economy and the need to undertake important nation-building and nation-preserving processes; the complex relationships between national languages and English, with different languages often playing multiple roles in different contexts.