South Asian populations have existed in the United Kingdom since the sixteenth century, although initially they were relatively small (Visram 1986; Mann 1992; Coleman and Salt 1996:7–8). By the nineteenth century, Indians resident in the United Kingdom—England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland—represented a wide spectrum of Indian society, from the nobility to domestic servants. There were princes and nawabs, many of whom came to the United Kingdom following sporadic upheavals in the Indian courts. Some became personalities in London’s high society; figures such as Maharaja Dalip Singh (1838–1883) were favorites at the court of Queen Victoria (Bayly 1990:181–182). Other communities centered around large ports such as Liverpool, Bristol, and London, where Indian sailors or “lascars” jumped ship to live in the surrounding areas, often in poverty and slum housing. Christian missionaries recorded the musical life of these immigrants, particularly in the East End of London (Salter 1872, 1895). In the late nineteenth century, Indian vocalists and sitar and tabla players could be heard performing in the local public houses and streets of Shadwell and Bluegate Fields (Salter 1872:199). This part of London, the borough of Tower Hamlets, now has the largest Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom.