In a speech delivered in 1984, Jeanne J. Kirkpatrick spoke of a coming “terrorist war [against the United States], [that] is part of a total war which sees the whole society as an enemy, and all members of a society as appropriate objects for violent actions.” 1 Her words became reality on September 11, 2001, and the world community came to understand terrorism as “an act of war.” Indeed, viewing terrorism as an act of war is a new manifestation of the changing nature of armed conflict, posing a new challenge for the historically fixed international rules relating to armed conflict.