This paper is a composite of two papers delivered at the 1964 and 1965 meetings of the Society for American Archaeology at the University of North Carolina and the University of Illinois. It represents an attempt to develop the techniques for interpreting economic data from the analysis of the artifactual material of prehistoric societies. The data used are derived from published reports on sites of the Indian Knoll Culture, namely Indian Knoll (Webb, 1946), Carlson Annis (Webb, 1950a), Read (Webb, 1950b), Ward and Kirkland (Webb and Haag, 1940), Chigger-ville (Webb and Haag, 1939), and Barrett and Butterfield (Webb and Haag, 1947).