I n education, policy debates recur with the regular-ity of the seasons; the issues and questions about summer learning are no exception. The implications of summer learning for schools are diverse, involving curricula, school calendars, scheduling and timetables, overcrowded classrooms, teachers' salaries, and the efficiency and effectiveness of American public education as a whole. Summer learning has generated interest in policy circles as well as in schools, for an amalgam of diverse reasons. Proponents of year-round schooling argue that increasing the time spent in school will enhance learning for all students and at the same time reduce costs; that it allows the full utilization of school facilities but with greater flexibility; that it can improve educational effectiveness and increase the amount of time American children spend studying academic subjects; and that once parents become used to new schedules they will realize that the September-toJune school year is an obsolete obstacle to educational progress. This mix of educational and administrative concerns has, however, often left parents skeptical and often rather hostile to proposed policies.