The modern sector itself, however, showed clear signs of di­ vergencies from the Western models: while organisation and overall profit-orientated rationality was stressed, familism in labour management became dominant; furthermore, with all their college education, the top managers of the zaibatsu were loyal in the traditional sense. Thus economic modernisation proceeded externally - that is, on the macro level as well as in organisational terms - according to Western models, while on the human level it remained traditional.