Actually, within the pre-war leadership generation, notably of the zaibatsu, a tendency had become apparent of timid con­ servatism and lack of flexibility. There were various reasons for such change from daring innovating to conservatism, which we touched upon, partly, in the previous chapter. The top leaders had been subjected to scathing attacks and had become cautious; they had risen to the position of identifying closely with the zaibatsu family interests as owners of capital; their firms could make use of monopoly positions and thus could not avoid the inherent dangers of monopoly as weakening the innovative drive.