This twisting and getting around the regulations was unpleasant and outright dangerous for both parties: the bank could run into serious trouble, particularly if it was small, and the managers of industrial enterprises were always uncertain whether they would receive the desired and needed loans, and whether they could be renewed. The industrialists therefore resorted to an expedient which would assure them continuous long term lending: they established their own banks to serve their own enterprises. Begin­ ning with the zaibatsu which one after another founded their zaibatsu banks, to the smaller entrepreneurs, this tendency became obvious; those banks were called the instrumental banks (kikan ginkō) for being instruments of the industrial ventures.