We have stressed repeatedly that modern business, notably fac­ tory production, came to Japan as result of politically motivated leadership; it was best understood by an avant-garde of entre­ preneurs. But these men were so much taken up with problems of technology, finance, and organisation, that such humble things as management of labour ranked rather low in their preference scale. The practitioners with experience in handling employees and workers, to whom this job had to be relegated, naturally took as models the past patterns of employer-employee relation­ ships. It is hence only to be expected that in this area of manage­ ment things would become difficult, to put it mildly.