This chapter describes insidious growth of forms of immigration control, residence and asylum seeker restrictions in social security provision over the last two decades in the United Kingdom. Within these chronologies of disentitlements, restrictive practices and occasional 'sweeteners' of positive measures and it considers evidence of liberal and illiberal policy-making, trajectories and racist effects, from a perspective of welfare rights advice. The chapter consolidates European developments and greater global movements and conflicts in this latest 'age of migration' and looks at how policies were justified and received. In processes which often deny human needs and fail human rights, it considers consequences for claimants, communities, advisers and staff in public provision, and the effectiveness of challenges to the changes. The chapter examines the approaches of two recent commentaries on immigration and asylum policy to suggest some underpinnings and contexts to the assessment of social security changes and effects.