Writer, translator, and educator. Born in Nazareth (Ottoman, later English-mandate Palestine), he studied at a Russian (Orthodox) missionary school and Teachers’ Training Center. He was a director of several Russian schools in Syria and Palestine and worked as teacher in Jerusalem. He founded the magazine al-Nafa‘is al-’Asriya [Modern Masterpieces], where he serialized the Russian novels he translated. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, he moved to Amman, then to Beirut, where he spent the rest of his life. His many translations from Russian comprised mostly fiction, but also historical and political books, including works in other European languages (such as Italian and German) through their Russian translations. He also published a novel, a collection of short stories, and books on education.