Poet, journalist, translator, and pioneer of Arab theater. He studied French and Arabic at Dar al-Alsun (The House of Tongues), Cairo, under Rifa’a al-Ṯahtawi. He taught French at the Khedive Diwan (Ministry of the Interior). Then he was named head of translators at the Maritime Bureau in Alexandria, and the translation office at the Ministry of the Interior. His works include translations from Molière and La Fontaine and a book on the grammars of Arabic and French.