This paper assumes that the term ‘approaches’ to the field of international relations covers not just theory or concept but practice and policy as well. In fact, what states do, rather than the apparent theoretical premises of their conduct, often matters more. It, therefore, touches briefly on both aspects.

It is difficult to distinguish sufficiently starkly between Western and non-Western approaches, because in history both the polities that came to be known as ‘Western’ nations and the other polities often acted alike in the international arena. Though there were periods of civilised and enlightened behaviour both groups often acted with as much raw brutality and naked self-interest.

Keywords: Western IR approaches; Non-Western IR approaches, Universal IR approaches; Role of the Media; ASEAN; Global Peace and Stability