This chapter provides an overview of debates concerning the meaning of the human right to food, placing it in the context of discussions pertaining to the concepts of food security and food sovereignty. Two elements within the right to food—namely, the notions of securing the means to procure food and assuring access to adequate nutrition—emerge as central in this analysis. More specifically, the author documents the trajectory of the right to food in Brazil, devoting special attention to Josué de Castro’s work. Castro’s interdisciplinary approach, particularly his focus on economic, geographic, and political factors, reveal dynamics that continue to characterize debates on hunger. The chapter’s focus will then shift to analyzing policies not only of Castro’s time, but also others that were developed during military rule. The last two sections of this chapter highlight efforts in Brazil’s democratic period, during the government of Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC), and then the Lula and Dilma administrations. On balance, the case of Brazil illustrates how debates concerning the right to food center on different, sometimes conflicting positions concerning the means to procure and assure access.