A whirlwind of expanded press freedom accompanied Indonesia’s Reformasi movement at the end of the 1990s. This helped propel Indonesia to the status of fully free, according to Freedom House. Not all rejoiced, with some powerful people seeking to criminalize journalists and press outlets to prevent unfavourable coverage. New institutional arrangements were created, including an independent Press Council which then fashioned a network of memoranda of understanding with key agencies of the state, resulting in the near-eradication of efforts to use the criminal code against members of the press. In recent years, Indonesia’s print media has faced the global challenge of online and social media. Shrinking commercial margins and demands to produce more ‘noise,’ if not news, is putting pressure on professional standards. Rising socio-religious conservatism, and resultant self-censorship, is also restricting coverage of many important issues affecting society and reducing the quality of public discourse that a free press encourages.