The term curriculum-based assessment (CBA) is frequently used to refer to a particular set of approaches derived from behavioural psychology. Work conducted in this tradition will form an important focus of much of this chapter. However, following the recent development of a broader range of strategies, the definition of curriculum-based assessment adopted will be the broader one proposed by Tucker (1985):

Curriculum based assessment properly includes ANY procedure that directly assesses student performance within the course content for the purpose of determining that students’ instructional needs. In curriculum based assessment (CBA) the pupils performance is compared in an on-going way to each new set of curriculum demands as they are presented in the classroom.