Problem-solving tools to improve productivity and job performance in business, industry, and government work settings. Quality Circle (QC) experiments enjoy a rich history, dating back more than 30 years. Conceived for Japanese industry, QCs are now common in business, government, and nonprofit organizations throughout the industrialized world. Circles have been used in South Africa, Colombia, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Although QCs were originally designed as a stand-alone innovation, most current approaches to improve worker productivity have assimilated circles as major elements in more inclusive Total Quality Management (TQM) strategies.