In 2002 President George Bush proposed the establishment of a Department of Homeland Security, to prevent terrorist attacks, reduce vulnerabilities to terrorism, and minimize damage and the time to recover from terrorist events and all other hazards. On November 25, 2002, the Homeland Security Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, formally established the DHS. The new department not only had a profound effect on the organization of the federal government, but also began to shape the role of the private sector as well. Specifically, Section 508 of the act prescribes the use of private-sector networks during an all-hazard response: “To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall use national private sector networks and infrastructure for emergency response to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive disasters, and other major disasters.”