Much of our discussion about "output-drivenness" has concerned various particular organizational arrangements of schools. The concept can also be used, however, to characterize a school's normative agenda. That is, we can describe as output-driven those schools in which daily activities, practices, experiences, and understandings complement and reinforce the importance of academic achievement. While nearly every principal will claim student achievement to be an important goal, it seems reasonable to expect variation in the degree to which their school organizational cultures are actually driven by academically oriented beliefs, values, and norms. Some school cultures, for example, may be oriented more toward other kinds of outcomes, such as student self-esteem, sense of belonging, or the establishment of positive and caring social relationships.