In the preceding chapter, we focused on the descriptive problems facing all who take up the general charge of understanding social and cultural constraints on the development of democracy in education. We showed how the charge has been interpreted as a simple call for explanations of differential success and failure across groups, and we argued that this interpretation is fraught with descriptive problems. In this chapter, we argue that it is also fraught with theoretical problems, and we move to specify the alternative that has guided us throughout the book.