Rule of law depends on the effective and universal enforcement of laws in independent courts. Despite the West’s assistance in legal reforms, virtually nothing has been devoted to transcending the Soviet legacy of the police and secret police, and their corrosive effect on civil authority. Not enough recognition has been given to the need to transform the law enforcement administration from its corrupt and totalitarian legacy and to promote civil controls by elected officials, impartial courts, and independent public oversight. This has had detrimental effects on markets, political development, human rights, international business and investment, as well as international security.