Economic sanctions have been integral to the repertoire of coercive foreign policy measures for centuries. Throughout this time, the imposition of sanctions has involved the dynamic interaction between the policies of implementation and maintenance, on the one hand, and various political and economic calculations of effectiveness on the other. As interstate commerce expanded and the technology of war placed a premium on control of the seas, scholars, advisors to kings, and international jurists formulated theories, strategies, and policies for waging various forms of economic coercion. 1 With each new episode of trade-based diplomacy, new concepts and frameworks of interstate relations and economic thought developed. These concepts and theoretical frameworks had a dual purpose: to describe and evaluate current actions and to prescribe how more effective economic actions might be undertaken in the future. 2