Commercial aviation is one of the world’s largest industries, and safe operations require dedicated professionalism as well as co-ordination between a wide range of professionals including pilots, air traffic controllers, maintenance engineers, dispatchers, managers, cabin crew, healthcare personnel, as well as many others. It is surprising, therefore, that there has not been an authoritative book on the selection of aviation-related professionals for nearly three decades, even though there are many selection systems in place and an array of idiosyncratic procedures for conducting these, across the industry. Are they all equally effective? Can they all be considered safe? Are all pilots the same? Do pilot selection procedures add value and ensure that the best is hired for the specific role? Are they fair, and are they based on ‘select-in’ or ‘select-out’ philosophies? Do the approaches in current use reflect contemporary and trending issues in aviation? This edited book, reflecting the highest standards of practice and academic research and underpinned by sound ethical principles, seeks to explore, address and answer some of these questions in the context of commercial pilot selections, although we include some insights into the selection of other professional aviation groups as well.