This chapter explores the development and operation of the official translation and interpreting education system in modern Korea. Based on an analysis of the translator and interpreter training schools operated by the government from the late 19th to early 20th century, the chapter examines the complex relationship between establishment of the modern training system and the dramatic historical and political changes that required a new generation of highly skilled translators and interpreters in Western languages. This chapter argues that the emergence of modern official translator and interpreter training schools in Korea is more closely related to the rapid changes in the external environment than the emergence of internal educational needs that required a new system. The emergence of these institutions was a sudden event that resulted from the Joseon government’s need to engage more actively and equally with the West in trade and diplomatic negotiations.