This chapter provides a review of scientific research on media effects and sexuality, with a particular focus on studies from the past two decades. First, the chapter explains the sexual script acquisition, activation, application model (3AM) of sexual media socialization. It then describes messages about sex in mainstream, social, and sexually explicit media, as well as cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral correlates of exposure to these messages. Patterns across cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies are identified, and special attention is paid to mediating mechanisms and moderating factors. Finally, the topic of internet pornography addiction is introduced and concluding remarks are offered.