The chapters in this book as a group provide a number of perspectives on ideology as it influences language policy and educational practice in the teaching and learning of English in the contemporary world. The idea that English in education is ideologically laden is not a new one, and aspects of this were powerfully articulated by Phillipson (1992) in his critique of linguistic imperialism. The study of the imperialistic ideologies that shape English language teaching and learning has continued since Phillipson’s early work, especially that focusing on the colonial legacy of English in the contemporary world (Pennycook, 2000a, 2000b). However, as these chapters show, the critique of linguistic imperialism addresses only part of the ideological weight that English carries. They also demonstrate that, given the increasing awareness of ideology and its impacts upon English language teaching and learning (e.g. Coleman, 1996; Hu and Adamson, 2012; Kubota, 1998; Liddicoat, 2013; Sonntag, 2000; Tollefson, 2000), much teaching and learning of English takes place in contexts where ideologies are little acknowledged and problematic ideological positions still shape much of what happens in classrooms, and in societies more broadly.