“Africa is rich!” read the T-shirts worn by protestors in recent years outside the Mining Indaba, an annual investment conference attended by mining companies and African government delegations in Cape Town, South Africa. The slogan is often used by civil society organizations to decry the paradox of abundant mineral resources in the context of enduring poverty in Africa. For example, the Africa Progress Panel’s findings on Illicit Financial Flows in 2015 have been interpreted by Global Justice Network, a non-governmental organization coalition, as evidence that “multinational companies are stealing Africa’s wealth.” 1 Africa, in the political imagination of its citizens and foreigners alike, remains locked in controversy over what its natural resources are worth and who benefits from them.