This chapter considers the creative tensions between classical ballet and the new expressive means developed by modern dance practitioners through its focus on Kurt Jooss’s choreographic and pedagogical practices. Through blurring the boundaries between ballet and modern dance, the chapter argues, Jooss was able to create several widely acclaimed works that treated contemporary themes from a modernist perspective. It considers how Jooss’s aspirations for a new form of dance theatre were achieved by reconsidering developments in his technique, choreography, and the repertoire and touring of his companies. It looks at the period 1928–1947, focusing on the repertory of the first Ballets Jooss company, Pandora (1944), and the ways critics highlighted the tensions apparent in Jooss’s engagement with the modern and the classical.