This chapter gives an overview of the restructuring of Hungarian agriculture and identifies its determinants. Hungary’s pre-transition farm structure was characterised by a dominance of collective farms. The ‘symbiosis’ between large-scale farms and household plots led to the relative success of Hungarian agriculture under Communism. The legislation designed to restructure Hungarian agriculture after the political reforms of 1989 through the restitution and privatisation of land and capital assets has been characterised by a complex set of rules and was expected to be completed in 1996. Following this legislation, state and collective farms have been transformed into a myarid of business organisations, bnut land use data suggest that large-scale farms still dominate Hungarian agriculture.