During recent centuries representatives of modern medicine have stated that traditional medicine is not only of no value, but that it actually causes positive harm to the population which it is supposed to serve (Bø 1972; Time Magazine 1982). However, as serious doubts have recently been raised about the effectiveness of modern medicine in its predominantly curative form as an instrument for the attainment of the goal of health for all (McKeown 1972; Lalonde 1975), it might be timely to examine in some depth the question, whether we ought to re-evaluate traditional medicine universally and whether – especially in the developing countries – cooperation between modern and traditional medicine should replace the present confrontation?