The chapter will examine the impact of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) on the mother and child relationship; this focus will include a consideration of professional assumptions that abused mothers have reduced capacity to care for and protect their children. Douglas and Walsh (2010) highlight how mothers as victims of DVA are viewed as being unprotective of their children, especially where they remain in a violent relationship. This point has considerable implications for a mother as a victim, because the fear of her intimate partner may be further exacerbated by a fear of being judged by professionals, where an ultimatum might be to ‘leave him or lose the child’. The chapter aims to challenge the risks of assumptions and judgements about vulnerable women as mothers in the context of DVA and will discuss the research evidence of protective strategies women use in the active protection of their children. This includes a need for a better understanding by all professionals working with children and their families as to why a mother ‘does not just leave’. The chapter will also examine the issues and ask important questions about the way early education professionals might consider issues related to trauma in early childhood, and the role of early help by agencies in supporting mothers and their children. The issue of childhood identities is considered in the context of the increasing recognition of the adverse experiences of living with DVA, as children may develop anxiety, depression, anger and aggression, or symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Øverlien, 2010). Similarly, with a focus on childhood identities, the chapter contends that children who witness and experience violence between their parents or carers may develop traits of victim or perpetrator attitudes and behaviours within their own intimate relationships in adolescence and adulthood.