This chapter considers the role cosmopolitanism could play in organising the world in line with principles of justice. The background to this discussion is recent experience of the rise of right-wing populism across the world. How should we think about coexistence in a world characterised by these experiences? Focusing on current experience of politicised religious identities in Europe, it is argued in this chapter that Western theorists ought to pay attention to the experiences of the postcolonial world in seeking ways to deal with the challenge. Given that democracy is more than institutional design, the rights of minorities constitute an essential project for global democracy.