Gremi studies have tried to draw upon the behaviour of companies in contributing to framing a theory of spatial development that takes account of the capacity of territories to integrate into their productive fabric new paradigms of the techno-industrial system, via the concepts of ‘innovative milieu’ and ‘networks of innovation’. Furthermore, the majority of Gremi’s empirical work has shown up the difficulty many regions are facing in adapting to these new paradigms and establishing themselves as real innovative milieux. This is why an approach to the problem of structural adjustments that draws upon Gremi’s theoretical referents may prove useful in the definition of regional development trajectories which will allow the regions to involve themselves positively in the globalisation of the economy by integrating technological changes. The aim of this paper is to provide, on the basis of the theoretical and empirical work conducted by Gremi and RIDER in connection with regional problems in Europe, an approach to structural adjustment policies that will focus upon the dynamic of innovative milieux.