Working memory is the mental system in which relevant information is maintained and used in ongoing processing. Critically, working memory represents maintenance that is intentional and selective. This can be contrasted with short-term memory, which is presently treated as a storage component of the overall working memory system (e.g., 7-item capacity). For present purposes, one should think of working memory as cognitive processes that ensure relevant information is intentionally maintained in short-term memory and that irrelevant information is kept out (Cowan, 2001; Engle, Tuholski, Laughlin, & Conway, 1999; Oberauer, Süß, Wilhem, & Sander, 2007; Shipstead, Harrison, & Engle, 2016).