The domestic sector is the largest consumer of energy in India accounting for 40 to 50 per cent of total energy consumption. The bulk of this energy consists of traditional fuels such as firewood, animal dung, and agriculture residue. In urban as well as in rural households, consumption of LPG, kerosene and electricity is increasing. Since the burning of traditional fuels is superimposed by the increasing trend of commercial energy use, the domestic sector also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.

In the absence of real estimates about energy consumption in the residential sector it is also difficult to estimate the emissions. This section therefore discusses only the alternatives to traditional and conventional fuels for various uses in the household sector.