74The history of the struggle against racial oppression in South Africa is, to a great extent, a history of ideas. Intellectuals within organisations such as the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), and in more loosely structured groupings such as the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM), developed competing conceptual answers to the questions about justice and identity with which their circumstances confronted them. Though often influenced by thinking from elsewhere in the world, these represent above all a set of home-grown intellectual responses to the situation of oppressed South Africans.