Many local authorities, particularly those associated with the 'major cities', have responsibility for maintaining a part of the national heritage, which may be in danger of serious depreciation due to inadequacies in the funding process. The generosity of nineteenth century industrial magnates bequeathed many of our finest cities with extensive formal and semi-formal parks, all of which require ongoing maintenance. Similarly, in post-war years, the reclamation of industrial waste land has resulted in much improved 'open spaces'. National and European funding has variously been available to support these capital projects, but rarely to meet the ongoing stream of current costs which are necessarily incurred if such projects are to lead to the long-term benefits intended. Again these environmental improvements place pressure on current budgets for the operational management of the land.