Formal tendering for 'white collar' professional services has become particularly associated with compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government, brought in by the Local Government Acts of 1988 and 1992. However, prior to April 1996, central government was the dominant public sector player. Estates and facilities management were amongst the most common white collar projects brought into contracting out and market testing within the government's Competing for Quality (CfQ) programme since 1992-1993 (Efficiency Unit Policy Review, 1996) and represented some 16 percent or £423M of the total programme. Private sector organisations are also making more use of bid procedures and 'beauty parades', but public sector tendering is especially significant because of the scale and timetable of the exercise.