The dual character of the title of this article reflects two styles of thinking about ways and means to enhance the opportunities for human beings to control the conditions under which they work, learn, live, play, and strive for ideals. The very term "participation" apparently refers to something—some activity, process, or system of decision making — in which designated participants can "take part." but which they cannot, will not, or should not "take (over) as a whole," "Self-management," to the contrary, denotes a "something" which is, can be, or ought to be wholly under the control of the participants themselves.