This book is about organizational decision-making, but in the social science literature decision-making covers several quite distinct areas of analysis. In psychology the emphasis is on cognitive processes in solving problems or making judgements, and typically these phenomena are investigated under controlled laboratory-like conditions (Nisbett and Ross, 1980; Kahneman et al., 1982; Pitz and Sachs, 1984). Most of this work is done with isolated individuals in attempts to establish preferred or optimal solutions or to discover non-rational or irrational decision outcomes.