Saudi Arabia is in the middle of a monumental succession, as power passes down to a new generation of princes as embodied by the controversial Crown Prince Muhammad bin Salman. Yet domestic obstacles, from its oil-addicted economy and vociferous political dissidents to foreign policy challenges in the form of aggressive interventionism and Iranian confrontations, remain. While the leadership has few plans to democratize the kingdom, long-term projects include economic diversification and harnessing the large youth population.