Latinos have had sustained population growth in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the United States, the Mexican population in particular. About a half century later there is projected to be another significant growth of not only Mexicans but Latinos more generally. This chapter provides an overview of the Mexican and Latino demographic trends and the political backlash that whites have leveled against Latinos to limit their political power. The chapter concludes with challenges and opportunities that Latinos face in improving their social, economic, and political position in the United States.