The founding fathers of India and Pakistan did not envisage antagonistic relations between the two countries. Even though Mahatma Gandhi opposed the creation of Pakistan, he took fast unto death for the release of Rs. 55 crores to Pakistan towards the second instalment of arrears to be paid to it under the terms of division of assets and liabilities. Similarly, although M.A. Jinnah championed the cause of Pakistan, he had a very positive vision for Pakistan-India relations. He believed that the two states would co-exist in peace and harmony like the United States and Canada. Regrettably, even before the two countries achieved independence, problems started to bedevil the relations. The issue of Kashmir became the main source of conflict between the two countries. Ever since the start of insurgency in Kashmir in 1990s, India has consistently raised the issue of cross-border terrorism with Pakistan. Even after 70 years of their existence as independent nations, both countries have failed to resolve the main bilateral contentious issues. Even the Indus Water Treaty is under a scanner now. The aim of this chapteris to navigate through the seventy-year history of India-Pakistan relations, detail the main issues of conflict and cooperation and suggest a way forward.