Entry level reference librarians must make a rapid transition from the reference classroom to the scheduled service hours at the reference desk. A questionnaire was sent to academic and public librarians to ask them to list the most important items of information or abilities they find they need to teach the entry level librarian. This is a brief discussion of relevant literature and a report of the 72 per cent return on the questionnaire. Five “needs” surfaced as ranking high for each type of library with three listed in common. Some suggestions are given for developing in-service education programs for reference librarians.