This chapter examines the political, strategic and cultural implications of large-scale cross-border movement of ethnic groups such as the ‘Rohingyas.’ It emphasizes that the Rohingya crisis has assumed a regional dimension and therefore the refugee crisis has to be analyzed in the light of contemporary relations between India and Myanmar. The chapter begins with a historical analysis of the origins of the Rohingyas, their settlement history in the Rakhine state and the evolution of the ‘majority-minority relations in the Arakan.’ It moves on to discuss the postcolonial developments and the promulgation of the 1974 Emergency Immigration Act by the Myanmar’s military regime in 1970s, which subsequently led to waves of out-migration of the Rohingyas in Myanmar in late 1970s, 1990s and 2000s to Bangladesh and other countries. The author argues the international response to the humanitarian crisis involving the Rohingyas has been inadequate. The state of Myanmar too failed to take adequate measures to take the responsibility to protect the Rohingyas. India adopted a ‘dual strategy,’ as the author argues. The Indian state tried to maintain good political relations with both Myanmar and Bangladesh that are central to its ‘Neighborhood First’ and ‘Act East Policy.’ At the same time, India adopted a ‘push back’ policy toward the Rohingyas.