Wetlands regulation in the United States is a patchwork quilt of legislative, judicial, and institutional action pieced together over the last century. Starting with the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 and progressing through the various water pollution control acts of the 1970s and 1980s, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps or USACE) gradually assumed regulatory control over wetlands in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Additionally, presidential directives, federal regulations, and judicial decisions directed the pattern of wetlands regulation. Knowledge of the incremental development of the regulatory process and the Corps’ evolutionary role is necessary for the forest manager to understand the often inconsistent and ambiguous nature of wetlands regulation. This chapter will begin with a brief history of the regulatory process and conclude with information on the current situation in relation to forest management activities.