This chapter reviews the literature to identify the key current challenges of both investigating and prosecuting rape within national and international criminal justice systems. It will draw on the literature regarding victims’/survivors’ experiences and perceptions in relation to engaging with police investigations and also with respect to court processes, e.g., giving evidence. This will highlight how negative victim stereotypes, such as blaming and rape myths, continue to be experienced by victims/survivors as they seek justice for their victimization. Alongside this literature, the literature in relation to criminal justice professionals such as police officers, forensic medical examiners, legal professionals, and jury members will be reviewed to examine their perspectives in relation to the challenges of investigating and prosecuting rape.