This chapter presents the case of sustainable woods management in Japan, and the multiple benefits it can generate for rural communities. Nishiawakura village in Okayama Prefecture is a typical example of where plantation forests are matured and under-utilized in Japan. The village community decided to revitalize the area through the sustainable use of natural resources. In 2008, the village decided to adopt the ‘Centrum Woods Vision’ initiative, to develop a new value chain of wood resources and increase the production and use of renewable energy. Young people within and outside the village supported the initiative and contributed to this development as entrepreneurs. Nishiawakura’s pursuit of sustainability through multi-faceted activities based on natural resources is at the forefront of the upcoming bioeconomy-oriented society. The initiative simultaneously pursues several of the SDGs, including Goal 5 (gender equality), Goal 7 (affordable and clean energy), Goal 9 (industry, innovation and infrastructure), Goal 10 (reduced inequality), Goal 12 (responsible consumption and production), Goal 13 (climate action), Goal 14 (life below water) and Goal 15 (life on land).