Since the mid-1970s, the more developed countries of Europe have closed their borders to immigrants from the less-developed countries of Southern Europe, the Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan Africa. 1 Restrictive policies were prompted by factors ranging from significant changes in labor market conditions and an economic slowdown to growing local resentment. These policies reflected the concerns of the receiving countries, with little or no consideration of the motives of the sending countries. Legal inflows were drastically reduced, although immigration was not stopped. Closings gave rise to new forms of entries, illegal immigrants or refugees at a significant level.